In this article, we are going to understand some of the basic concepts in the IT industry.  We do hear these topics everyday like networks, software, programming, compiler etc but sometimes wonder what these actually mean.  So, let’s have look at some of these in the following paragraphs:


Interconnection of computers is called a network.  These networks could be LAN’s (Local Area Network) or WAN’s (Wide Area Network).

To establish a network we require hardware, software and protocols.


These are the physical components that we can touch and see.


Protocols are the set of rules to be followed by every computer in the network.  Generally, there are two types of rules which consists of following requirements:

  1.  When to send and receive the data.
  2.  How to send and receive the data.


Client is a computer that sends a request to server.


It is a computer which takes the client request, processes that request and sends the result back to the client.


It is a group of computer programs that drives the hardware to perform a given task.

Computer Program

It is a set of instructions or Set of statements that can be interpreted and executed to write a (instructions) computer program we need a programming language.  There are a lot of programming languages available e.g. C, C++, java, COBOL, PHP, Python etc.

Computers cannot understand any programming language, they can understand zero’s (0) and one’s (1) also called Binary Digits.

Any program must be converted into machine level language (binary digits) in order to run the instructions.  To do this kind of conversion we need a special software called translator.


It is a program/software that converts a computer program into a machine level language.  There are three types of translators:

  1. Interpreter
  2. Compiler
  3. Assembler

1. Interpreter:  It reads the code line by line and translates into the machine level language.  It takes less memory.

2. Compiler:  It reads all the lines i.e. the whole program at once and translates it into machine level language.  It takes more memory.

Interpreter is slower than compiler.  In some of the programming languages we use either of them or in some of the programming languages we use both e.g. in Java we interpreter and compiler both.

3. Assembler:  It translates assembly language programs to machine level language that can be understood by 8086, 8085 processors.

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